India as a federal and democratic country follows a political set up that allows people of all spheres to caste their votes to elect the government. India post independence has held several elections both national and state wise, but the 1st instance of coalition politics in India was when in 1977 the left front government came to power under Jyoti Basu. The political turmoil of the period saw many leftist parties coming together like CPI (M), CPI, RSP, Forward Bloc and others forming the 1st ever non congress government in a state. It was the time when the centre also got the 1st ever coalition government under the Prime Minister ship of Morarji Desai during the 1977 phase. Now there is a need to trace the history to know why this coalition politics is becoming important in India.
Indian in its political setup is a breading ground for the multiple political parties. Now the control of the congress rule is waning and there is no other major party that can get their foothold in a state on its own. The people are also thinking that any regional party would do more good than any national party ruling from the centre. This is making the regional and national party equation change a lot in the past few years. From 1995 onwards it was all about the coalition politics in India. BJP was aiming for power but couldn’t sustain it in 1997. Then congress supported the united front government headed by Mr. H.D. Deva Gowda. But then again due to problem of reaching consensus the government falls yet again and I.K Gujral became the new prime minister of the United Front government. Again there was discontent and mid-term election was called where NDA (National Democratic Alliance) was formed which ensured that the government become stable but just 13 months later another election has to be done. Finally in 1999, Mr. A.B.Vajpayee began his office that continued for 5 years at a stretch.
The present scenario only demands the coalition politics in India. Congress has also formed UPA (United Progressive Alliance) to run the election after the 5 yrs term of NDA was over. Now for 2 terms we are witnessing the UPA rule which just states the fact very truly that it is the only way out to win elections in India. It has now been seen that this coalition party has been the keyword in every student politics.